Is the US Gender Gap in Depression Changing Over Time? A Meta-Regression


Platt, J. M., Bates, L., Jager, J., Mclaughlin, K. A., & Keyes, K. M. (2021). Is the US Gender Gap in Depression Changing Over Time? A Meta-Regression. American Journal of Epidemiology , 190 (7), 1190-1206.
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The depression gap refers to higher rates of depression among women than men. Change in the depression gap over time may elucidate social causes of this disparity—such as unequal college attendance or employment status. We conducted a meta-regression analysis to estimate variation in the depression gap over time by age, accounting for potential sources of variation between studies. Electronic databases and bibliographies were searched for English language studies from January 1980–October 2019. 144 independent estimates from United States-representative samples met selection criteria (n=813,189). The depression gap was summarized as prevalence ratios (PR) among studies using diagnostic instruments, and standardized mean differences among symptom-based studies. Primary study measures were baseline study year (range: 1982-2017), and age (range: 10-60+). Compared with respondents ages 60+, depression prevalence was greater among respondents aged 10-19 (PR=1.26; 95% CI=1.02, 1.56). Over time, the depression gap did not change among adults, but increased among adolescents (age by time interaction PR=1.05; 95% CI=1.01, 1.08). Results were similar for symptom-based studies. The present study finds no evidence of a change in the depression gender gap for US adults, however, the gap increased among adolescents. Greater attention to factors driving this widening disparity in adolescent depression is needed.

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Last updated on 05/19/2022